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Instructions to Authors


Instructions to Authors

Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection is the official publication of the Chinese Society of Microbiology, the Chinese Society of Immunology, the Infectious Diseases Society of Taiwan, and the Taiwan Society of Parasitology. The Journal publishes papers relating to clinical or laboratory investigations of relevance to microbiology, immunology, infectious diseases and parasitology. Original articles relating to these fields are welcomed. Review articles, case reports, brief communications and research notes are also considered.

All materials are assumed to be submitted exclusively unless otherwise stated, and must not have been published previously except in abstract form. Manuscripts will be subjected to prompt peer review and the editors reserve the right to edit papers in preparation for publication in the Journal.

Categories of papers
The Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection publishes specific categories of articles as described below. Each category serves a distinct and separate purpose and is judged by different criteria. The category of paper should be stated in the covering letter and on the manuscript title page.

Review Articles. Review articles should be scholarly analysis of recent developments in a specific topic in microbiology, immunology, infectious diseases or parasitology. No subjective opinion or personal experience is expressed. They should consist of a Title page, Abstract (less than 250 words), Key words, text (including Introduction and Conclusion), References, tables and/or figures (if any).

Original Articles. Articles should provide new information based on original research. They should contain the following sections in this order: Title page, a structured Abstract (less than 250 words), Key words, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, and References. Provide tables and/ or figures appropriately.

The Abstract should summarize the purpose of the study, basic procedures, main findings and principal conclusions, and must be structured with the following subheadings: Background and Purpose, Methods, Results, and Conclusion(s).

The section of Introduction should outline the purpose of study providing adequate background information. The Methods section should describe the materials and methods (study design, setting, patients, interventions, outcome measures, and analyses, as appropriate) in detail so that experiments can be repeated. Results present in tables and figures should not be repeated unnecessarily in the text. The Discussion section should provide the interpretation of the results in relation to findings of other investigators; Conclusion should be stated clearly.

Case Reports. Case reports should contain the following sections: Title page, Abstract (less than 200 words), Key words, Introduction, Case Report, Discussion, References. Provide tables and/or figures if necessary. The reported cases should contain some special features not previously described.

Brief Communications and Research Notes. Brief communications and Research notes should be short and concise, and contain the following sections: Title page, Abstract (less than 200 words), Key words, Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion (these two may be combined). There should be no more than 20 references and three illustrations (including tables and figures) and should not exceed a total of three printed pages.

Letters to the Editor. Short letters are welcome in response to articles previously published in the Journal. The authors of the article commented upon would be invited to reply. The editors reserve the right to edit any letter received.

Submission of manuscripts
Manuscripts (including text, tables, and figures) must be submitted in triplicate to the with a covering letter clearly stating that the paper is original, unpublished and has not been submitted elsewhere. The copyright is to be transferred to the Journal once the paper is accepted for publication. Three sets of figures and illustrations should be enclosed. The author should also state the category of paper submitted. Authors should retain a copy of all materials, as the Editors cannot accept responsibility for loss. All submitted materials, including photomicrographs, will not be returned to authors unless rejected. Manuscripts should be submitted to:

Manuscripts should be submitted to:

Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection
Department of Laboratory Medicine
National Taiwan University Hospital

, Taiwan.

Preparation of the manuscript
All manuscripts should be written in the English language. The text should be typed double-spaced on one side of A4 size (297 210 mm) paper. A 2-cm margin should be left at both sides of the text. Begin each of the following sections on a separate page: title page, abstract and key words, text, acknowledgments, references, individual tables and legends. Number pages consecutively, beginning with the title page. Type the page number in the center of the bottom of each page. The format and contents should be very carefully checked to avoid the need for later corrections.

Title page. The title page should contain: (1) title of the article; (2) first name, middle name, and surname of each author; (3) name of the department(s) and institution(s) of each author; (4) a running title not exceeding 45 characters; (5) full name, postal address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address of the corresponding author. Manuscripts should be accompanied by a Chinese title and the Chinese names (if available) of the authors.

Abstract and key words. The second page should contain a concise abstract of no more than 250 words. Abstracts of Original Articles must be structured as follows:
Background and Purpose: In two or three sentences, explain the rationale or importance of the study topic and state a precise study question or purpose.
Methods: State the methodology used to answer the study question. Include information on the study design, setting, patients, interventions, outcome measures, and analyses, as appropriate.
Results: Summarize the central findings of your study, along with data and statistical details such as p values and confidence intervals where appropriate. Be sure that information provided in the abstract matches that in main article.
Conclusions: Summarize the implications and/or limitations of your findings, being careful to address the study question directly and to confine your conclusions to aspects covered in the abstract. Give equal emphasis to positive and negative findings.

Below the abstract, please provide three to five relevant indexing terms (key words). The key words must be Medical Subject Headings terms taken from Medline/Index Medicus.

Text. The text of the article is usually divided into sections with the headings: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Subheadings within some sections may be included to clarify their content. For original articles, the following sections should be included:
Introduction: The rationale for the study should be summarized and pertinent background material outlined. This should not include findings or conclusions.
Methods: This section should describe the methodology (study design, setting, patients, interventions, outcome measures, and analyses, as appropriate) in sufficient detail to leave the reader in no doubt as to how the results are derived. Manuscripts that contain the results of human or animal studies should make clear that a high standard of ethics was applied. Invasive studies of humans should state that the research protocol was approved by the local ethics committee.
Results: The results should be presented in logical sequence in the text, Tables, and Figures; repetitive presentation of the same data in different forms should be avoided. This section should not include material appropriate to the Discussion. Results must be statistically analyzed where appropriate, and the statistical guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors should be followed [1].
Discussion: Data given in the Results section should not be repeated here. This section should present the implications and limitations of the study. The Discussion may also include an evaluation of methodology and of the relationship of new information to the existing body of knowledge in the field. Conclusions should be incorporated into the final paragraph and should be consistent with - and completely supported by - data in the text. In brief communications and research notes, the Results and Discussion sections may be combined.

Use of Systme International (SI) measurements is preferred throughout the manuscript. All abbreviations must be fully identified on their first appearance in the text, except mm, m, sec, min, h, ?g, mg, g, kg, ?L, mL, and L. Clinical or laboratory jargon is to be avoided.

Use italics for p values, and taxonomic nomenclature, e.g. bacterial names. Do not use italics for the terms in vitro, in vivo, et al, and vs. Full names for organisms should be provided when first mentioned in the text; thereafter, the genus should be abbreviated to its initial letter, e.g. S. aureus. If necessary, italics may be indicated by underlining. Use "sp." and "spp." for species (singular and plural). Do not use lower case letter "l" (el) for "1" (one), "O" (oh) for "0" (zero) or "x" (ex) for " " (multiplication sign).

Acknowledgments. Only persons or grants that have made substantive contribution to the study or preparation of manuscript should be included.

References. References should be numbered consecutively in order of appearance in the text. References should follow the Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals: writing and editing for biomedical publication [1] and should appear in the text, Tables, and Figures as Arabic numerals in parentheses on the same line as the text, rather than a superscript. Abstracts should not be cited unless the abstract is the only available reference to an important concept. Do not include uncompleted work or work that has not yet been accepted for publication as references. Abbreviations for periodicals should conform to those used in Index Medicus and include the complete title of the cited work and names and initials of authors. For citations with more than 6 authors, include the first six authors, followed by "et al". Examples of correct forms of references from journal articles and chapter in a book are given below:

1. Wang JT, Chang CS, Yang JC, Lin JT, Wang TH. Optimized conditions for growth and fermentation of Helicobacter pylori. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 1998;31:146-50.
2. Varis T, Vesikari T. Efficacy of high-titer live attenuated varicella vaccine in healthy children. J Infect Dis 1996;174 (Suppl 3):S330-1.
3. Lim HK, Liu CP, Huang FY, Kuu HT, Yang YC, Chen PJ, et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome in a medical center in Taipei. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2003;36:161-8.

1. Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T, eds. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. 2nd ed. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; 1989.
2. Eichmann K. Expression and function of idiotypes on lymphocytes. In: Dixon FJ, Kunkel HG, eds. Advances in Immunology. Vol 26. New York: Academic Press; 1978:195-254

Tables. Tables must be typed in Table format after the references or provided in a separate Microsoft Word file. Tables should be cited in numerical order in the text, and numbered in Arabic numerals (e.g. Table. 1). A brief title should be supplied for each Table and a short heading provided for each column. Explanatory matter should be placed in footnotes, not in the heading. Abbreviations should be avoided in Tables. If abbreviations are necessary, they must be explained in a footnote. Defined symbols should use a, b, c etc. in italic superscript. Statistical measures of variation such as standard deviation, standard error of the mean, and confidence interval should be identified in the column headings.

Figures. Figures should be accurately drawn. All Figures must be cited in numerical order in the text and numbered with Arabic numerals (e.g. Fig. 1). Figures should be provided in electronic format in a separate file, not as part of the body text. The resolution of photographs or photomicrographs must be at least 350 dpi.

Illustrations. Illustrations can include photographs, photomicrographs, charts, and diagrams. The number of illustrations should be restricted to the minimum necessary to support the textual material. Illustrations should be submitted as unmounted, unretouched glossy prints, and should be carefully marked on the back with the figure number, top of the illustration, and the principal author's name, using a soft lead pencil or a stick-on label. Patient identification should be obscured. Transfer arrows should be used to indicate subtle but salient points. Authors are responsible for obtaining written permission to use any copyrighted text or illustrations.

Drawings, graphs, charts, etc. should be drawn in black and white, preferably by a professional illustrator. Arrows and symbols must be of professional quality and of a size permitting some reduction in the final copy.

Legends. Type legends for figures double-spaced on a separate page with Arabic numerals corresponding to the figures/illustrations and indicate the anatomic area and/or pathologic condition shown. All symbols and abbreviations not defined in the text should be defined in the legend.

Proofs and reprints. Proofs must be returned to the Journal within 48 hours of receipt and clarification to queries (if any) addressed, failing which the editors will make a final decision. Twenty unbound copies will be supplied to the corresponding author free of charge. Additional reprints may be ordered at the price listed on the order form accompanying the proofs.

Copyright and disk. Upon acceptance of an article by the Journal, the corresponding author will be asked to submit the accepted version (Microsoft Word or IBM-compatible word-processing program) on a 3.5 inch floppy disk and to transfer copyright of the article to the Journal.

1. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals: writing and editing for biomedical publication. ICMJE; 2004. www.icmje.org

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